The Methodological Limitations of Survey Research


The Methodological Limitations of Survey Research Correlation
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As a tool to evaluate the viability of any and all interventions, efforts, and strategies, surveys offer several advantages, such as being accessible, easy, flexible, and cost-effective. You can administer a survey to reach a large and diverse audience worldwide, increasing the validity, accuracy, and generalizability of your findings. 


In this blog, we’ll focus on the limitations of survey research and provide ways you can overcome those to ensure an efficient and effective survey. 

What is Survey Research?

Survey research is a method of collecting data from a predefined group of respondents, or sample, via surveys. Researchers and organizations widely use survey research to better understand people, consumers, and societies.  

The process involves systematically gathering opinions, insights, attitudes, behaviors, or characteristics through online surveys or interviews. The insights help us understand human behavior and preferences across various industries like market research, healthcare, social sciences, and public opinion polls. 

While surveys offer various advantages, they are not without limitations. In the following sections, we will explore the methodological limitations of survey research. We have categorized the challenges into three groups to help you recognize which of these might be impacting your survey results. 

Read how Voxco helped Brain Research improve research productivity by 60%.

Types of Limitations of Survey Research

What are the types of limitations of survey research? The limitations of survey research can be categorized into three groups: survey constraints, survey errors, and survey-related effects.

The following three are the limitations of survey research that can impact the reliability, validity, and accuracy of your result. Recognizing these gaps can help you mitigate their effects. 

1. Survey errors: 

These refer to the discrepancies in your survey findings caused due to factors like sampling bias, response bias, or measurement errors during the data collection process. Survey errors may undermine the validity of the result. 

2. Survey constraints: 

These limitations arise from practical concerns like budget, time, and resources. These constraints may restrict the scope and quality of your survey research. 

3. Errors during survey process: 

These limitations include issues introduced by survey design or administration process. It can affect the representativeness of the survey result. 

Exploring the Limitations of Survey Research

Let’s explore these limitations of survey research in detail to understand what might be impacting the survey result. 

1. Survey errors

Survey errors can be further categorized into the following three groups:

A. Sampling bias:

This error can occur if the sample selected for your survey is not an accurate representation of the target population, resulting in a biased estimate of the population. 

For example, a retail survey only targets urban customers and ignores rural or lower-income demographics. The survey result may not accurately reflect the opinions and characteristics of the entire customer base. 

B. Response bias: 

This limitation of survey research arises when respondents share misleading information due to factors like social desirability or acquiescence. 

For example, respondents may empathize with their likelihood of purchasing a product that is socially accepted/celebrated. This can skew the real market predictions. 

C. Measurement error:

Gathering inaccurate data due to factors like ambiguous questions or response options can lead to measurement errors. 

For example, if a market research survey asks leading questions about a customer’s purchase behavior, the respondent may provide an inaccurate response. This can compromise the reliability of the data. 

D. Survey administration issues: 

This includes errors in the data collection process. Factors like incomplete surveys or data entry mistakes are a few examples of survey administration issues. 

For example, if a research firm fails to update the contact list, it can lead to misrepresentation of the target population. 

Also read: Accelerate Survey Research with Voxco Audience

Application of the Quasi-Experimental Design

Quasi-experimental studies have lower internal validity than true experiments and also cannot establish a causal relationship between variables as effectively. So why do researchers use it? 

There are certain situations where the use of a quasi-experimental design is more suited to the study. This is especially true for studies where it would be unethical to withhold treatment from a subject on a random basis. In such situations, researchers can utilize quasi-experimental design to circumvent any ethical issues.

Additionally, another context in which a quasi-experimental design is more appropriate is when the true experiment design is not feasible. This could be due to the high expenses associated with true experiments. It could also be due to the fact that true experiments generally involve a lot of work to effectively design an experimental intervention for the threshold of subjects required to justify the research as a true experiment.

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2. Survey constraints 

Some other limitations of survey research can be related to resource, budget, and time constraints. 

A. Resource constraints: 

Limited availability of technology, human resources, and expertise may impact the survey process, from survey design to data analysis.

B. Time constraints: 

Unattainable deadlines can compromise the thoroughness of survey design, data collection, and analysis. A tight time frame can result in utilizing convenience sampling methods, sacrificing the representativeness of the data. 

C. Budget constraints: 

 Insufficient funding can restrict the use of the right technology. It can limit the scope and quality of the research project. 

3. Errors during survey process: 

Survey-related effects limit the precision of the conclusions that can be drawn from collected data. These are a few different survey-related effects:


Although there is no single ‘correct’ way to word a question, different questions can yield different responses. Factors like wording, orderings, or formatting of your survey question can impact a respondent’s interpretation of the question, resulting in distorted data. 

Survey mode effects: 

This limitation of survey research occurs when the mode of survey administration influences your respondent’s behavior, responses, or attitude. For example, relying on online surveys exclusively may exclude the elderly or remote demographic, skewing the demographic representation. 

Overcoming Limitations of Survey Research

Recognizing the limitations of survey research can help you enhance the credibility and validity of the data, ensuring that decisions are made based on well-informed data. 

1. Sampling bias: 

Implementing various sampling methods like stratified sampling can help you ensure the respondent group is representative of the target population. Additionally, employing a market research panel lik Voxco Audience gives you access to verified user profiles so you can create your survey sample that represents the target audience. 

2. Response bias: 

Using validated scale questions and providing assurance of anonymity can encourage honest responses and candor among respondents and reduce social desirability or acquiescence bias. Moreover, leveraging diverse data collection methods can help reduce response bias. 

3. Measurement error: 

Utilizing skip-logic to tailor questions based on respondents’ answers, pretesting survey questionnaires, and refining survey introductions can help reduce measurement errors. Offering clear instructions and response options and asking questions relevant to individual respondents can enhance data quality. 

A robust tool like Voxco’s enables you to create a clear and concise survey by utilizing skip logic, question randomization, and customization to minimize measurement errors. 

Voxco helps the top 50 MR firms & 450+ global brands gather omnichannel feedback, measure sentiment, uncover insights, and act on them.

See how Voxco can enhance your research efficiency.

4. Survey administration issues: 

Implement survey testing and quality checks, monitor survey performance in real-time, and test survey responsiveness on all devices to mitigate survey administration issues. 

5. Survey question errors: 

Utilize clear and unambiguous language in your survey questions and ensure that your content is comprehensive and relevant to the general population. Additionally, various question formats should be used to avoid leading or biased questions and enhance data quality. 

6. Survey mode effects: 

Use modern survey software that empowers you with the flexibility of using various survey modes to conduct research. Voxco, for instance, offers three survey modes – online survey tool, phone surveys, and mobile-offline surveys. Leverage a platform that allows you to utilize different modes and gather data centrally to ensure seamless survey research. 


Survey research serves as a powerful tool to make informed decisions based on insights gathered directly from the target audience. However, the limitations of survey research can compromise the accuracy, reliability, and validity of the result. By understanding and proactively addressing these limitations, you can unlock the real potential of your survey data. 

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