Objectives of social research1

Research Methodology with Real Examples


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esearch methodology is the foundation of any scientific inquiry. It guides researchers on the best way to conduct their investigation, ensuring that your study follows a well-structured process and yields valuable insights. 

Scientists experiment with various social, scientific, and other issues. Researchers adopt different available research methodologies that suit their study better. 

Research as a scientific tool helps these researchers to measure sample data with minimum biases and a much higher accuracy rate. This helps them to confidently put forth a conclusion to society, knowing that the data gathered is legit and the results drawn from the studies are systematic and statistically sensible. 

In this article, we will be seeing examples of types of research methodology and their basic purpose in a tabular format for better understanding:

Defining research methodology

Research methodology is a systematic and organized process of planning, executing, and analyzing research studies to gather information on specific questions. It refers to “how” you can design your study to generate reliable results that address the objective. 

It includes a set of principles and practices that determine the methods you can employ in your research process. 

→ What type of data do you want to collect?

→ Who should you collect the data from?

→ How to gather reliable data?

→ How or what methods to use for data analysis?

Purpose of research methodology 

The primary purpose of research methodology is to provide a clear outline of how you should conduct your research. This helps you in the following ways. 

  1. Systematically explore the research goal. 
  2. Ensure the accuracy of data collection and analysis. 
  3. Minimize errors and bias. 
  4. Enable replication of the study in the future to validate the findings. 
  5. Draw meaningful and insightful conclusions to make informed decisions. 

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16 Research methodology examples




Theoretical research

It is used when the researcher wants to just gather more information about a particular topic without considering its practical working

A social research was conducted to understand the economical mentality of the middle class citizens

Applied research

It is used to address the STEM fields such as engineering, medicine, etc. which are more closely connected to human lives with their actual applications

A business can analyze the customers purchase strategies and plan the marketing accordingly

Exploratory research

It is used as a preliminary study for the topics about which there is no deeper knowledge explored yet

A study conducted to understand the relation between millennials and social media usage

Descriptive research

It just focuses on finding out the characteristics the phenomena shows rather than the factors that causes it

Investigating the standard of living in rural and urban areas

Qualitative research

It is used collect, compare, analyse large descriptive data from the sample

Study conducted to understand the effects of exercise on health

Quantitative research 

It gathers the data through close-ended questions and analyzes data using statistics, mathematical and computerized tools. 

Conducting a market research survey on the likes and dislikes of the customers regarding clothing

Experimental research

It is used to measure the cause-effect relationship between two variables with random sampling

Experiment to test a new drug in the market on patients

Non-experimental research

It is used as an observational study where participants have experimented in their environment

A study on the effects of a certain education program on a batch of students

Quasi-experimental research 

It is similar to experimental but the sampling is not random but studied

A study conducted to know the effects of eating more cheese have on bad breath

Deductive research 

It focuses on explaining the reality with the help of general laws referring to certain conclusions

Research conducted to prove that bad domestic treatment can cause anger issues in children

Inductive research 

It is also an observational study that focuses on achieving generalised results

A study is conducted to understand the symptoms of the new Covid variant

Hypothetical-deductive investigation

It first formulated the hypothesis based on basic observation and then uses deductive investigation to conclude the study which will in return reject or accept the hypothesis

Research is conducted to test a hypothesis that diabetic patients have fewer wound healing capabilities

Longitudinal study 

It aims to track the changes in the subject over time

To study the health of a patient under treatment over several weeks

Cross-sectional study

It focuses on observing events, individual or groups of subjects over time

To study the health of 10 patients under the same treatment over several weeks

Primary research

Researchers gather data themselves that is specific to their study making the data more reliable since it is first-hand information. 

A researcher deciding to study the Covid variant and its impact, which has very few cases in the country. 

Secondary research 

Researchers use available material like research papers, interviews, documentaries as a source of data and information in their research

A researcher makes use of pre-existing research papers for his assignment experiment

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Research methodology serves as a blueprint to guide researchers in conducting a structured study and gathering accurate and reliable data. It ensures that you draw meaningful conclusions and make data-driven decisions. 

By understanding the various research methodology examples and their applications, you can determine the most suitable approach and tailor your study to achieve the objective effectively. 


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