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Quantitative Research

Market research 04 12
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In Quantitative research, marketers collect and analyze numerical data to make a data-driven decision. The research process uses Statistical Techniques to analyze, and interpret the numerical data collected from the audience.

Quantitative Research is used to identify patterns, test causal relationships, make predictions, and generalize data to the entire population. The aim of the research is to quantify the issue in order to make logical and statistical sense of it. The numerical data helps understand how common the problem is.

Quantitative Research is mostly used in the field of natural and social science

  • Biology
  • Chemistry
  • Psychology
  • Economics
  • Marketing


Types of Quantitative Research

Quantitative Research2

There are primarily four types of quantitative research used in a research study – Descriptive, Experimental, Correlational, and survey. We have explained the four types of quantitative research and when they are used in a quantitative study.

Descriptive Research:

It is used to examine more than one variable and aims to accurately describe a situation or population. In Descriptive research you learn the answers for ‘what’, ‘where’, ‘when’, and ‘how’.

When the purpose of your quantitative study is to identify frequency or trends, descriptive research is a good option. It is mostly useful when you need to understand ‘how’, ‘when’, and ‘where’ something happened before you can dive into the ‘why’. Marketers can only observe and examine the variables and not manipulate them.

Methods used to collect data for Descriptive Research are – Survey, Observation, and Case Studies.

Experimental Research:

Mostly used in Natural Sciences Experimental Research aims to prove a hypothesis. One or more than one theory is undertaken in the research and the entire process consists of proving or disproving the concerning theories.

Experimental Research involves two sets of variables and tries to establish a cause-effect relationship among the variables. As a researcher, you can manipulate all variables except one called the dependent variable. The independent variable is manipulated in order to gauge the effect it has on the dependent variable.

Correlational Research:

Correlational Research is the type of quantitative research that includes finding a relationship between two or more variables. It observes the impact one variable has on the other and the changes that occur. The purpose of correlational research in a quantitative study is to find trends and patterns between the variables. In this research, the researcher does not control any of the factors.

  • Positive Correlation: The variables change in a similar direction.
  • Negative Correlation: The variables change in opposite directions.
  • Zero Correlation: No relationship is found between the variables.

To test the hypothesis researchers use Correlational and Experimental Research using statistics.

Survey Research:

The aim to conduct survey research is to understand the desire, needs, preferences, and behavior of the target market. Researchers ask questions that help them identify their target audience or to receive feedback from the customers.

A survey can be conducted via mail, on the phone, face-to-face, in-app, etc.

Quantitative Research1

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Quantitative Research to measure Customer Experience

Quantitative Research can provide descriptive data to determine the variance between particular segments of customers. The data collected is numerical and it is difficult to argue against statistical data. The numerical element of Quantitative research validates the prediction,

So, quantitative research also helps to measure and predict customer experience. For commercial business, customers, their interaction, feedback, and experience, play a vital role. This makes measuring and developing services to improve customer experience the most important task.

Quantitative research makes it easy to analyze and evaluate the data collected. Visualizing the data in charts or graphs makes it easy to get an overall view of how successful a company is in offering positive customer experience. The marketers can thus use the object and statistically accurate data to develop strategies.

Moreover, with suitable sample size, the quantitative research data can be generalized to the entire population. The results obtained are valid and trustworthy. The researchers can thus make informed decisions regarding the business.

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How to analyze data from Quantitative Research?

The quantitative study does not stop after data collection. You need to analyze the collected data in order to gain knowledgeable insights. You can use statistical analysis such as SWOT, Conjoint, Turf, or Cross-tabulation.

SWOT: This type of statistical analysis is used to evaluate internal and external performance of the organization. It helps identify the Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats of an organization to develop effective strategies.

Conjoint Analysis: It helps learn how customers make their purchase decision.

TURF Analysis: Totally Unduplicated Reach and Frequency Analysis, is used to determine the reach of a preferred channel of communication. Also, the frequency of the communication is analyzed to understand its potential in the market.

Cross Tabulation: It helps establish relationships, trends, and patterns between various attributes.

Descriptive Statistics provides an overview of data along with averages and variability. You can make use of graphs, frequency tables, and other visual charts to check for trends.


Following are some examples of using quantitative methods to conduct research.

  • A cosmetic company organizes an event to showcase its new line of products. They decide to conduct a survey, a quantitative method and collect feedback from the audience about their experience and their perception of the event. The company can gather knowledge about customer satisfaction during pre and post-event as well as sales.

They can ask the likelihood of recommendation, frequency of purchase, etc. At the end with all data collected, it can be analyzed and actionable insights can be derived. The company can take measures to improve its performance to increase customer satisfaction.

  • Quantitative Research may also be used to study the impact of social media on customers. The sample size for this survey requires a suitable number of male and female respondents. It is necessary that the sample size is large enough to reflect the entire target market.

The research can make use of a numerical scale like the Likert Scale to ask questions regarding the research topic. The question could be: “How likely are you to purchase a product after finding it recommended by a social media influencer on their Instagram?”

The options could range from 1 (least likely) to 10 (most likely).

The numerical scale is easy to quantify and is a powerful Quantitative Research tool.


When to use Quantitative Research?

As we have already mentioned, quantitative research collects data that can be quantified and thus produce a statistical report.

The quantitative method is more useful when you need answers to – how much, how often, how likely. It gives you insight regarding the ‘what’, ‘when’, and ‘who’ before you can further dig into the ‘why’.

Some examples of when you can use Quantitative Research are:

  • When you have a large sample size and the need to prove a hypothesis
  • When measuring satisfaction or usability metrics
  • When you need to gather feedback from different segments of customers, not from the same location



Data Collection is the process when observations are gathered for research. It is not only restricted for academic purposes but is also used by governments, businesses, etc.

To collect data for Quantitative research tools like Questionnaires, Focus Groups, Interviews, and Observation are most commonly used.

The aim of Quantitative Research is to gain insight into the audience. In marketing, it is used to understand what influences the Customer’s purchase decision.

A quantitative method is a type of research where the data collected is in a numerical or statistical format. Companies use quantitative methods to gather bias-free & measurable data about customers’ behavior, experience, attitude, satisfaction, and more.

There are four main kinds of quantitative research, as listed below:  

  1. Descriptive Research
  2. Experimental Research
  3. Correlational Research
  4. Survey

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