Sentiment Analysis


Sentiment Analysis1
Table of Contents

Sentiment analysis is a subset of text research, sometimes known as mining. It employs a combination of statistics, natural language processing (NLP), and machine learning to identify and extract subjective information from text files, such as a reviewer’s feelings, thoughts, judgments, or assessments about a specific topic, event, or, as previously mentioned, a company and its activities. This sort of analysis is sometimes referred to as opinion mining (with a concentration on extraction) or emotional rating. Some experts also use the words sentiment categorization and extraction. The purpose of sentiment analysis, regardless of its nomenclature, is the same: to determine a user’s or audience’s opinion on a target item by evaluating a large volume of text from numerous sources.

Sentiment analysis enables organizations to leverage massive volumes of free data to better understand their customers’ requirements and attitudes about their brand. Organizations monitor internet interactions in order to enhance their products and services while also maintaining their reputation. The analysis elevates client service to a new level. Customer support systems that use SA prioritize incoming enquiries, letting personnel to assist the most demanding clients first. Sentiment analysis is also an effective technique for workforce analytics.

Examples Of Sentiment Analysis

  • Cabin cruisers do not bother me. (Handling Negation)
  • I’m not very fond of watercraft. (Negation, reversed word order) I despise RIBs at times. (Adverbial alters the mood) I’d love to go out in this weather! (Perhaps caustic)
  • Limestone is more attractive than Chris Craft. (With two brand names, it is impossible to determine the aim of attitude.)
  • Limestone is more visually appealing than Chris Craft, yet Limestone exudes seaworthiness and dependability. (Two mindsets, two brands.)
  • The film is startling, with a number of frightening storyline twists. (In certain disciplines, a negative phrase is employed in a positive context.)
  • You should check out their opulent dessert selection. (In certain contexts, the polarity of the attitude word has lately altered.)

Exploratory Research Guide

Conducting exploratory research seems tricky but an effective guide can help.

How Can Sentiment Analysis Be Done?

The technology underlying the procedure is based on natural language processing and machine learning algorithms that identify text as positive, neutral, or negative.

Sentiment analysis may employ a variety of algorithms:


This system is entirely based on machine learning techniques and learns from received data. The most fundamental part of artificial intelligence is machine learning.

The process of automatic sentiment analysis begins with the creation of a dataset including a set of texts labeled as positive, negative, or neutral.

Learning begins and continues as a semi-automatic process with this in place. This method learns from data until the system reaches a certain degree of independence, which is sufficient to accurately judge the sentiment of flesh, unknown texts. It is thus critical to know what data the algorithm is fed.

If the algorithm hasn’t seen a certain case before, it won’t be able to provide an accurate analysis.

One of the most significant advantages of this algorithm is the vast amount of data it can evaluate – far more than the rule-based algorithm.

When it comes to drawbacks, the algorithm makes it tough to explain conclusions behind text analyses, which means it’s hard to tell why a certain sentence was labeled as good or bad.


This method is built around manually developed lexicons that define positive and negative word strings. The programme then compares the number of positive and negative terms to determine which ones are more prevalent.

Other features of text, such as part of speech, grammar, and so on, can be governed by rules.

When it comes to the principles that underpin analysis, this method is simple to apply and transparent.


This method includes both of the previously stated techniques and appears to be the most successful approach.

This is due to the fact that it combines the high precision supplied by machine learning with the stability provided by the rule-based, lexicon-based approach.

Use Cases Of Sentiment Analysis

Sentiment analysis is used in a variety of sectors. While the applications of sentiment analysis are interrelated, they all aim to improve performance through the study of fluctuations in public opinion.

Brand Tracking

If the Internet were a mountain stream, evaluating user-generated material on social media and other platforms would be like going trout fishing during spawning season. People like discussing the latest news, local and worldwide events, and their own customer service experiences. Twitter and Facebook are popular locations for daily comment battles and lively (to put it kindly!) debates. Within a few hours of being published on Reddit, news about celebrities, entrepreneurs, and worldwide corporations attracts thousands of users. Time, The Economist, and CNBC, as well as millions of blogs, forums, and websites

It is critical to understand not just societal opinion about your business, but also who is talking about it. Measuring mention tone may also help us determine whether and when industry influencers mention your company. What’s more, sentiment analysis software can accomplish all of this in real time and across all channels.

Competitive Investigation 

One thing is certain: we and our competition have a target audience. We may follow and examine how society perceives rivals in the same way that we analyze their attitude toward your company. What do customers like the most about other industry participants? Is there anything that rivals lack or do incorrectly? Which channels do customers utilize to communicate with other businesses? Use this knowledge to better our communication and marketing tactics, general service, and the services and goods we offer to clients.

Competitive analysis that includes sentiment analysis may also help us identify our own flaws and strengths, as well as potential methods to differentiate yourself.

Prioritization Of Customer Service And Identification Of Flames 

Sentiment categorization is used by hospitality brands, financial institutions, merchants, transportation organizations, and other industries to maximize customer service department performance. Users can automate the classification of incoming customer support messages by polarity, subject, aspect, and priority using text analysis technologies such as IBM Watson Natural Language Understanding or MonkeyLearn. The enquiries are then sent to certain teams and expertise. Because it is preferable to extinguish a spark before it becomes a blaze, fresh communications from the least satisfied and most irate consumers are processed first. Satalytics, for example, categorizes feedback based on device, stage of the customer journey, and whether the consumer is new or returning.

Product Evaluation 

Every entrepreneur kills every time he or she sees people waiting in line for stores to open so they may rush inside, acquire that new product, and become one of the world’s first proud owners. How can the desired product be brought to market? The only way to go about it is to ask them what they want. Successful businesses create a minimal viable product (MVP), get early feedback, and continue to improve a product even after it is out. Data from surveys, social media, and forums, as well as interactions with customer service, are used to generate feedback. Questions emerge about how to determine which consumer groups to question, how to evaluate this ocean of data, and how to classify feedback.

This is where sentiment analysis comes in. It enables learning about the benefits and cons of a product. For example, an Oklahoma State University student examined Amazon reviews for two Samsung phone models (Galaxy S6 and Galaxy S7) and two Apple devices (iPhone 6 and iPhone 7) to see why people choose one brand over another. He discovered that people who prioritize a stable battery and a decent screen choose Samsung phones. Customers that are more interested in design and photography choose iPhones.

Filtering comments by subject and emotion allows us to determine which features are required and which must be removed. With the results of sentiment analysis in hand, a product development team will know exactly how to offer a product that customers would enjoy.

Market Studies And Trends In The Industry 

As previously said, social media platforms and forums are excellent sources of knowledge on any subject. People talk about news and goods, and they write about their beliefs, dreams, daily needs, and happenings. And they do it freely 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

Sentiment analysis overcomes the issue of dealing with vast amounts of unstructured data. Marketers use text analysis to analyze and evaluate customer behavior patterns in real time in order to forecast future trends and assist management in making educated decisions. Another advantage of sentiment analysis is that it does not require a large investment and enables the collection of accurate and legitimate data because it is user-generated.

Workforce Analytics/monitoring Employee Engagement 

Some firms use sentiment analysis for HR-related procedures in addition to market research or customer experience review. These businesses track employee happiness and look for issues that demotivate team members and, as a result, lower company performance. Specialists use SA software to automate the examination of employee surveys, allowing them to handle problems and concerns more quickly. Human resource managers may identify and track overall tone of comments, organize data by departments and keywords, and determine whether or not employee attitude has changed over time.

Sentiment analysis takes employee mood monitoring to the next level by allowing for real-time monitoring. For example, every month, team members can complete our survey forms with a single request to score their workplace circumstances. They can also examine their social media postings to see if there is a link between their mental status and their professional life.

See Voxco survey software in action with a Free demo.

Evaluation Of Sentiment Analysis

In general, the accuracy of a sentiment analysis system is determined by how well it agrees with human assessments. This is often assessed using different metrics based on accuracy and recall across the two target categories of negative and positive texts. Human raters, on the other hand, only agree around 80% [59%] of the time, according to study (see Inter-rater reliability). Thus, a software that reaches 70% accuracy in classifying sentiment is doing almost as well as humans, despite the fact that such accuracy may not appear to be noteworthy. Even if a software was “correct” 100% of the time, people would still disagree with it around 20% of the time, since they dispute so much about any response.

Computer systems, on the other hand, will make significantly different errors than human assessors, thus the results are not fully comparable. A computer system, for example, will struggle with negations, exaggerations, jokes, or sarcasm, which are normally easy to comprehend for a human reader: certain errors made by a computer system will appear too naïve to a person. In general, the utility of sentiment analysis as defined in academic research for practical commercial tasks has been called into question, primarily because the simple one-dimensional model of sentiment from negative to positive yields relatively little actionable information for a client concerned about the impact of public discourse on, say, brand or corporate reputation.

To better meet market demands, sentiment analysis assessment has shifted to more task-based metrics developed in collaboration with PR agency representatives and market research specialists. In the RepLab assessment data set, for example, the emphasis is less on the content of the text under review and more on the influence of the text in question on brand reputation. 

Because sentiment analysis assessment is becoming increasingly task-based, each implementation requires a distinct training model to provide a more accurate representation of sentiment for a specific data collection.

Types Of Sentiment Analysis

  • Fine-grained sentiment analysis gives a more specific level of polarity by categorizing it further, generally from highly positive to very negative. This is the equivalent of a 5-star rating system in terms of opinion.
  • Emotion detection, as opposed to positivity and negative, recognises individual emotions. Examples include joy, irritation, shock, rage, and sadness.
  • Intent-based analysis identifies behaviors as well as opinions behind a text. For example, an online remark indicating dissatisfaction with replacing a battery may motivate customer support to contact the user to remedy the issue.
  • Aspect-based analysis identifies the exact component that is being referenced positively or negatively. For example, a customer may leave a review on a product stating that the battery life was insufficient. The system will then return that the negative sentiment is not about the product as a whole, but about the battery life. 

Sentiment Analysis Challenges

Due to the complexities of language, sentiment analysis must deal with at least a few challenges. It might be difficult to ascribe a sentiment categorization to a sentence in some instances. This is where natural language processing-based sentiment analysis comes in helpful, since the computer attempts to emulate real human discourse.

  • Contrastive pairing

Contrastive conjunctions are a challenge that a sentiment analysis system must deal with when one piece of text (a sentence) contains two contradicting terms (both positive and negative).

“The weather was bad, but the trek was incredible!” is an example statement.

  • Recognizing named entities

Another significant issue that algorithms encounter is named-entity recognition. Words have distinct meanings in different contexts.

Is “Everest” referring to the mountain or the film?

  • Resolution of anaphora

The problem of references inside a phrase, also known as pronoun resolution, specifies what a pronoun or a word refers to.

“We went to the theater and then to supper,” for example. It was dreadful.”

  • Sarcasm

Is there a sentiment analysis technology that can identify sarcasm? Please suggest one!

“I’m so glad the plane is delayed,” for example.

  • The Interconnected Computer Networks

It just so happens that every language used online takes on its own personality. Bad spelling, abbreviations, acronyms, a lack of capitalization, and poor grammar emerge from the economy of language and the Internet as a medium. The examination of such text may present issues for sentiment analysis systems.

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