Data Streaming


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Table of Contents

Streaming data is data that is created in real time by several sources. Without having access to all of the data, such data should be handled sequentially utilizing stream processing techniques. Furthermore, it should be noted that idea drift may occur in the data, implying that the qualities of the stream may vary with time. It is commonly employed in the context of big data, which is created at fast speed by many diverse sources.

What Is Data Streaming?

Data streaming is the practice of broadcasting a continuous stream of data (also known as streams) that is often put into stream processing software to extract important insights. A data stream is a sequence of data pieces that are arranged in time. The data indicates a “event” or a change in condition that has occurred in the business and is valuable for the business to be aware of and assess, frequently in real-time. Sensor data, online browser activity logs, and financial transaction logs are some examples of data streams. A data stream may be seen as an unending conveyor belt that transports data pieces and constantly feeds them into a data processor.

The importance of data streaming and stream processing has grown in tandem with the expansion of the Internet of Things (IoT) and user expectations. Data streaming sources include personal health monitors and home security systems. Multiple motion sensors are used in a home security system to monitor different regions of the house. These sensors create a constant stream of data that is transferred to a processing infrastructure that monitors any unusual behavior in real-time or stores the data to analyze for difficult to notice trends later. Health monitors, such as heartbeat, blood pressure, and oxygen monitors, are another form of data streaming sources. These gadgets are constantly producing data. The timely examination of this data is critical, since the person’s safety may depend on it.


  • The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to a vast network of devices that gather data using sensors and transfer it in real time to a data processor. Stream data is generated by IoT data. Watches, home security systems, traffic monitoring systems, biometric scanners, linked home products, cybersecurity, and privacy systems all create and broadcast data in real time.
  • Stock market monitors in real time: Real-time financial data is frequently delivered in a stream format. Financial data processing and analysis (such as stock prices and market movements) enables firms to make critical choices quickly.
  • Logs of activity and transactions: The internet is also a significant source of real-time stream data. Web browsers produce activity records when users visit websites or click on links. Online financial activities, such as credit card purchases, create time-sensitive data that may be streamed and analyzed in real time.
  • Process monitors: Every organization generates billions of data points from its internal systems. Businesses can monitor system health and intervene before problems get out of hand by streaming this data and analyzing it in real-time. Manufacturing organizations, for example, frequently utilize equipment to monitor the health of the assembly line and detect flaws in order to assess risk in production. These devices can also send time-critical data in order to monitor and potentially avoid disruptions.

Aside from these examples, there are likely many more data streaming uses. However, because of the advent of streaming services, data streaming has had the greatest impact on the audio, video, and telecommunications industries. Streaming services have had a significant impact on how consumers consume media nowadays. Because data streaming technology has had the greatest influence on streaming services, this will be the major focus of this website going forward.

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Characteristics Of Data Streaming

Streaming data from sensors, web browsers, and other monitoring systems differs from traditional, historical data in several ways. The following are some of the most important aspects of stream data:


A time stamp is attached to each element in a data stream. The data streams are time-sensitive, and their relevance fades after a given period of time. For example, data from a home security system indicating a suspicious movement should be examined and treated as soon as possible in order to remain relevant.


Streaming data has no beginning or conclusion. Data streams are continuous and occur in real-time, although they are not always acted on in the moment due to system needs.


Stream data is frequently derived from thousands of distinct sources, some of which may be geographically remote. The stream data may be a combination of multiple formats due to the variance in the sources.


A data stream may contain missing or corrupted data pieces due to the multiplicity of its sources and multiple data transport technologies. Furthermore, the data pieces in a stream may come out of sequence.

Unpredictable and volatile

Because data streaming occurs in real-time, repeating the transmission of a stream is challenging. While there are mechanisms for retransmission, the new data may differ from the previous one. As a result, the data streams are extremely variable. Many contemporary systems, however, preserve a record of their data streams, so even if we couldn’t access it at the moment, we can still analyze it later. 

Significance Of Data Streaming In Business

Data in the form of streams is extremely important in today’s environment. Every second, several IoT devices and internet users create massive amounts of continuous, real-time data. For enterprises, processing this data in real time is both a difficulty and an opportunity.

The Changing Characteristics of Data

Organizations have traditionally collected data over time, stored it in data warehouses, and processed it in batches. This conserves valuable computational power. Data structure and processing technologies have evolved dramatically in recent years. The Internet of Things has brought a wide range of sensors that create stream data. Credit cards and online financial transactions provide real-time data that must be evaluated and confirmed. Online transactions and activity logs are generated by web browsers. To accommodate these types of data, data streaming and stream processing are required. 

A large amount of data

The quantity of data created every second is just too large to be stored in any data warehouse. As a result, stream data is frequently reviewed at the moment to decide if it is a critical piece of real-time data or not. As a consequence, systems may stream data and promptly evaluate it to determine what gets retained and what doesn’t, assisting enterprises in reducing data loss, data storage, and infrastructure expenses.

Stream Processor And Its Requirements

To handle streaming or live data, a technique that differs from typical batch processing is required. A stream processor is a computer programme that collects, analyses, and visualizes a continuous stream of data. And, of course, processing must begin with data streaming. Data streaming is the first step in stream processing. Stream processing is used to take in data streams and extract insights from them in real-time. Because of the one-of-a-kind nature of streaming data, a stream processor must fulfill the following requirements:

Low Latency 

A stream processor should be able to work fast on continuous data streams. Processing speed is a major problem for two reasons. One, the data is received in a continuous stream, and if the processor is sluggish and misses data, it cannot be recovered. Second, streaming data becomes obsolete in a short period of time. Any processing delay reduces the value of the data.


The volume of streaming data may not always remain constant. Sensors, for example, may generate low amounts of data on a regular basis, yet there may be an occasional surge in the data. Because the volume of data is unexpected, the processor should be able to handle enormous amounts of data if necessary.


Long downtimes are not an option for a stream processor. The data in the stream is continuous and arrives in real time. A processor must be fault-tolerant, which means that it must be able to function even if some of its components fail. A stream processor should also be able to gather, evaluate, and offer insights to an upper layer in real time.

Components Of Steam Processor

Datastream Administration 

The goal of stream processing in data stream management is to generate a summary of the incoming data or to develop models. A stream processor, for example, may be able to generate a list of face traits from a continuous stream of facial data. Internet activity records are another example of this use case. The stream processor attempts to compute the user’s preferences and interests based on a steady stream of user click data.

Processing Of Complex Events

The use case that applies to the majority of IoT data streams is complex event processing. The data stream in this use case is made up of event streams. The stream processor’s duty is to extract critical events, derive valuable insights, and promptly send the information to a higher layer so that immediate real-time action may be performed.

More stream processors can only handle one of the aforementioned use scenarios, however some sophisticated processors can handle both. Regardless of the use case, the stream processor’s end-to-end design should include the following features:

  • Data collection

The data generating system refers to the many raw data sources, such as sensors, transaction monitors, and web browsers. They are constantly generating data for the stream processing system to ingest.

  • Data gathering and aggregation

Each of the data creation sources listed above is connected with a client that gets data from the source. These are referred to as source clients. An aggregator collects data from several source clients and sends it in motion to a centralized data buffer.

  • Buffering for messaging

Message buffers briefly hold stream data from an aggregation agent before delivering it to a logic processor. Message buffers are classified into two types: topic-based and queue-based. In topic-based buffers, incoming data is kept in the form of topics, which are records. A subject may be contributed to by one or more data providers. The queue-based message buffer is a point-to-point buffering system that reads from a single producer and delivers to a single data consumer.

  • Broker of messages

A message broker system is made up of data gathering, aggregation, and message buffering technologies. The message broker’s functionality is to collect stream data from many sources, format it, and send it on to a continuous logic processing system.

  • Continuous Logic processing 

This is the core component of the stream processing architecture. To get meaningful insights, the continuous logic processing subsystem conducts multiple predefined queries on the incoming data streams. Queries as basic as those stored in an XML file can be used. These searches are executed indefinitely on the incoming data. This subsystem may establish a declarative command language to allow users to construct these queries more simply. For scalability and fault tolerance, the continuous logic processing system is frequently operated on distributed computers. The logic processing system has grown over time to accommodate dynamic query change and programming APIs for simpler querying.

  • Presentation and storage

In stream processing, these are two supporting systems. The storage system saves a summary of the input data stream for future reference. It also saves the outcomes of queries conducted on the continuous data stream. The presentation system is used to show the data to the customers. The presentation system might incorporate a higher degree of analytical system or end-user warnings.

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Benefits Of Data Streaming And Processing

  • Reduce the cost of infrastructure

In conventional data processing, data is frequently kept in massive quantities in data warehouses. The expense of these storage systems and hardware is sometimes a financial hardship for enterprises. Because data is not kept in large numbers with stream processing, processing systems have lower hardware expenses.

  • Reduce Avoidable Losses

Organizations can continually monitor their business ecosystem thanks to real-time data feeds. They keep businesses aware of potential security breaches, production concerns, consumer unhappiness, financial meltdowns, or impending social image disruptions. Organizations may avoid such avoidable errors by utilizing continuous data streaming and processing.

  • Boost competitiveness and customer satisfaction

Organizations can use real-time data processing to fix potential problems before they arise. This buys them time and offers them an advantage over competition. Consumer satisfaction is also increased by data streaming and processing since customer complaints may be handled in real time. There is no delay caused by data lying in warehouses waiting to be processed with continuous, real-time data processing.

  • High Returns with Stream Processing

Data may provide enormous benefits to organizations in general. Real-time stream processing techniques provide firms a competitive advantage by assessing time-sensitive data and allowing them to react and respond rapidly to possible problems. Stream analysis, for example, assists financial firms in monitoring real-time stock values and making time-critical choices. It keeps them up to date on current market trends. Organizations may increase their reaction time to critical events by utilizing robust visualization tools in conjunction with a real-time stream processing infrastructure.

Challenges For Data Streaming And Processing

Data streaming and processing systems work with data that is extremely volatile, real-time, and continuous. Stream data is frequently diverse and incomplete. The nature of stream data presents several problems to data streaming and processing.

  • Volume and diversity of data

Data streaming is concerned with massive amounts of continuous, real-time data. Data loss and corrupted data packets are both typical problems in data streaming. Stream data is frequently heterogeneous, coming from a variety of geographical areas and applications. Because of the nature of this data, it presents a barrier for data streaming and processing programmes to handle.

  • Timeliness

Stream data’s usefulness dwindles over time. Data streaming and processing systems must be quick enough to examine data while it is still relevant. The time-sensitive nature of the stream data necessitates a high-performance, fault-tolerant system.

  • Elasticity

Every day, the volume of stream data grows. To maintain a given degree of service quality, stream processing systems must constantly adjust to the load. Stream data sources may not always send large amounts of data. In such instances, processing systems must only use the bare minimum of resources. When demand rises, the system should distribute more resources dynamically. Another problem posed by stream processing systems is the requirement for flexibility.

  • Tolerance for Faults

Stream processing occurs in real-time and is continuous. The data in the stream cannot be replicated or completely retransmitted. As a result, downtime is not an option for stream processing systems. Unlike typical batch processing systems, there is little delay between data gathering and processing. Systems must be available at all times and perform properly. If any element of the system fails, the remainder of the processing system should be unaffected.

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